Thanks for the hint. The auto-completion has turned “mouse wheel” into “mouse pad”.
The problem is the same as with the creator of this thread. In the settings of Logi Options the scroll wheel is set to middle button and also the mode button (middle button) is, well, also set to middle button. So far I have used an MX Anywhere 2 which is configured the same way. With this model the orbit works in Sketchup. Also with an MX Master 3.
It might be worth mentioning that I use the MacOS version of Sketchup. I will test on another system if the mouse behaves the same and report here. But since I have a direct comparison with 3 models on my desk, one can assume that this is a specific problem of MX Anywhere 3.