You can use the Divide command to divide an edge (right-click an edge > Divide > key in number of divisions.
However, that really isn’t a good way to build a cabinet. You should make the cabinet more or less the way you would in the real world. Build the cabinet box and make it a component. Build the cabinet doors and make them components. Assemble the cabinet complete, and make it another component.
Going the other way, each board and panel making up the cabinet should also be components. For instance, a board would be a component consisting of six faces and twelve edges.
If you do all your modeling using raw geometry (faces and edges) up against raw geometry, sooner or later things are going to get all stuck together and make a mess.
If you wish to practice your skills using only raw geometry for a while longer before jumping into groups and components, I suggest modeling things that are intended to be a single homogeneous object, like an individual part cut from a single piece of wood. When you’re ready to build an assembly, like a cabinet or a chair or an airplane, it’s time to learn about groups and components.