There is nothing limiting you from using a browser. And this is specific network settings on specific conditions, and everything I've run into I've fixed via the methods above, with the exception of one: I've found some PC's on some networks seem to not like the "I'm on the network" setting we use by default - that could be a 302 issue or a http to https issue, I'm trying to determine that.
Edit (if you have the English language version, if not, replace en-US with appropriate language): C:\Program Files\SketchUp\SketchUp 2016\Resources\en-US\i18n.dat and it has a line:
to make that work by NOT getting a 302 and NOT redirecting to https, I changed it to
and it worked (of course, you then have to clear IE cache, delete cookiejar.xml etc... per instructions above). But on 99% of networks, it works as is... just not yours.