Not entirely. You can’t draw a Circle from an edge, but you can draw an Arc.
One of the options on the Arc tool is to start at the place you want the edge to be, then click at another point on the desired circumference, then either move the mouse to get a Tangent highlight (cyan) or set the ‘bulge’. If you know the radius you want as well, you can change it after setting the bulge, in Entity Info. A bit roundabout, but it gets you there.
And when you have the arc, select it, R-click and Find Center, then draw a circle centred on that point.
PS. You have SU Pro 2019, your profile says, but for those with earlier versions of SU, you may not have the Find Center command natively. There are plugins to do it though.