I have been having the same happen when I have been uploading .mp4 files to OneDrive recently. It seems to have recently started and occurring on a more regular basis.
It seems that most of the time you can simply attempt to upload it again and it will successfully upload. I have noticed it more with files with a - or _ within the file name however it is really odd as to why it will fail then work fine without changing the file name. Changing the file name may be a possible resolve if attempting the re-upload fails.
I came across your post by trying to find the exact cause however looks as though no one else has reported this issue. I may contact Microsoft Support to see if they can shed any light onto the situation.
If I do get around to contacting support and getting a quick response I will update this thread.I hope this response helps and sorry I cannot provide any further info at the moment. This resolve is based solely on my experience and what I have managed to do to get it to upload, by no means is this a guaranteed fix for what you are experiencing.