Exporting and printing PDF files works differently. Printing essentially exports an image of your page ans puts that on a “sheet” inside a PDF file. That makes the structure of the file quite simple.
Exporting to PDF creates a much more complex file, with images, vector lines, text items and fills stacked on a page and further complicated if also layers are included. It is good if you intend to postprocess the file with an illustration application. I have noticed, previously with AutoCad, that this sometimes becomes just too much for a PDF viewer to display or print to paper correctly. The workaround is either a “printed” PDF or then an attempt to simplify the page: Switch to raster rendering for SketchUp views (or Vector, if you already did), do not export layers (or do, if your failed export didn’t). All these to make it easier for Acrobat (or your PDF viewer of choice) to interpret what the stacking order on the page is.